Oligohydramnios in pregnant women is much less common than excess amniotic fluid. Oligohydramnios in pregnant women indicates that during the entire pregnancy there were any violations that threaten the life of the fetus.
Amniotic fluid is the nutrients that are vital for the proper intrauterine development of the child, oxygen, vitamins, salts and hormonal substances that support pregnancy. Without a sufficient amount of amniotic fluid, it is extremely difficult to carry out a pregnancy normally. Among other things, amniotic fluid not only nourishes the fetus, but also protects it from harmful environmental factors.
The total amount of amniotic fluid is constantly changing, as the pregnancy develops, and the needs of the fetus for certain substances increase. For example, Volume in the last trimester, the volume of amniotic fluid is from a liter to one and a half liters. They say about oligohydramnios if these indicators are below the norm. In obstetric practice, there were cases when there was practically no amniotic fluid. Oligohydramnios in pregnant women is usually divided into moderate and severe, focusing on the degree of lack of amniotic fluid.
With moderate oligohydramnios in pregnant women, when the amount of amniotic fluid is slightly less than normal, a woman should adjust her diet, eat a variety of foods rich in vitamins and minerals, adhere to a sparing regimen, regularly see a doctor to avoid deterioration.
Severe oligohydramnios in pregnant women requires more radical measures. With severe oligohydramnios, drug therapy is prescribed, sometimes treatment is carried out in a clinic. With a severe shortage of amniotic fluid, fetal pathologies can develop, for example, bone tissue formation disorders, pathological development of the limbs, fetal hypoxia, which can cause the development of pathologies of the central nervous system.
Causes of oligohydramnios in pregnant women
The causes of oligohydramnios in pregnant women are still not fully understood. According to the statistics of obstetric practice, the causes of this condition are most often:
– incomplete development of the epithelial tissue that covers the amniotic fluid, or low secretory work of this membrane;
– pathologies and anomalies in the intrauterine development of the child. Such disorders include disorders in the development of the kidneys, genetic inheritance in the development of the kidneys and face.
– the cause of oligohydramnios in pregnant women can be high blood pressure, often observed in pregnant women. Of course, during the bearing of a child, the pressure changes in almost every expectant mother. But these deviations, subject to a normal pregnancy, usually do not cause concern. If the pressure jumps significantly, then oligohydramnios may occur. The severity of oligohydramnios is related to blood pressure readings.
– the cause of oligohydramnios in pregnant women can be infections of a bacterial nature, which the pregnant woman had, and which were not completely cured. With this outcome, the pathogenic flora is found not only in the birth canal, but also in the amniotic fluid itself.
Multiple pregnancies can also cause oligohydramnios. This process is related to the uneven distribution of blood in the placental membrane. In other words, one fetus receives more nutrients, while the other feels a shortage.
– Prolongation of pregnancy can cause oligohydramnios in pregnant women. That is, the placental membrane should already stop working in terms of time, it ages and exfoliates, becoming unable to perform its functions. In this case, the problem is solved by artificial induction of contractions and childbirth.