Pyelonephritis is the most common kidney disease. This is an infectious disease that can be caused by staphylococcal infection, E. coli, streptococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some other microorganisms. Acute pyelonephritis affects the renal parenchyma and the calyx-pelvis system. The disease is primary and secondary, acute and chronic, affecting one (unilateral) kidney or both (bilateral).
How does the infection get into the kidneys?
Pathogens can enter the kidneys in two ways: through the urinary duct or through the blood. If the infection advances into the kidneys along the urinary ducts from the bladder, then this path is called ascending. The second option for the infection to enter the kidneys is through the blood, occurs as a result of other diseases, for example, with chronic tonsillitis, sore throat, tuberculosis and other diseases.
You should also highlight a number of factors that can provoke the disease:
- stones in the kidneys;
- diseases of the urinary tract, in particular those that are accompanied by a violation of the outflow of urine;
- a depressed state of the immune system;
- improper nutrition;
Symptoms of acute pilonephritis
Acute pilonephritis has several forms and stages: acute serous pilonephritis and purulent pilonephritis. Purulent pilonephritis is the second stage of the disease.
Symptoms of acute pilonephritis include: a sharp increase in body temperature up to 39 ° C, frequent urination, renal colic, pain in the lumbar region, pain in joints and muscles, headache, nausea.
But the appearance of symptoms largely depends on the form and stage of the disease. For example, primary acute pilonephritis begins to manifest itself with a sharp increase in temperature, headache, nausea, and increased sweating. Pain in the kidney area may be completely absent.
In contrast, secondary pilonephritis is primarily manifested by renal colic, only after which the temperature and all other symptoms gradually begin to rise.
Diagnosis and treatment of acute pilonephritis
Acute pilonephritis is considered a rather serious disease, the effectiveness of treatment of which largely depends on timely diagnosis and initiation of therapy. To identify the disease, the doctor may prescribe the following tests for the patient: complete blood count, blood chemistry, general urine analysis, bacteriological urine analysis, urine Gram stain, chromocytoscopy or excretory urography, ultrasound, computed tomography or MRI, radiological studies. The doctor does not use all diagnostic methods at the same time, only those are selected that help determine the presence of the disease, as well as its stage and form.
Treatment of acute pilonephritis
Acute pilonephritis is treated with antibacterial drugs of various groups. At the same time, it is important to adhere to bed rest, a diet that limits the patient in protein and the use of large amounts of fluids.
If pilonephritis is a secondary disease, then the disease that caused it must also be treated. To exclude the transition of pilonephritis to a chronic form, antibiotics can be used for up to 6 weeks.