Ectropion of the cervix is a disease in which the mucous membrane of the cervical canal is inverted. The disease is congenital and acquired. Sometimes ectropion is considered a complicated form of cervical ectopia. Ectropion occurs usually after a rupture of the cervix, which was poorly eliminated or was not eliminated after childbirth or abortion. Women with ectropion are worried about vaginal discharge. When examining a smear from the cervical canal and vagina, the doctor discovers moderate inflammation, which in almost all cases accompanies the ectropion.
The causes of ectropion
Ectropion is congenital and acquired. Congenital ectropion is not so named because a woman has it from the moment of birth. This type of disease occurs as a result of hormonal imbalance in young nulliparous girls and is extremely rare. Acquired ectropion can result from abortion, especially carried out at a sufficiently long period of pregnancy, or postpartum rupture of the cervix. The injured circular muscles can no longer resist the longitudinal muscles, which over time leads to eversion of the lower part of the cervical canal. The damaged tissues are gradually healed, thereby deforming the cervix, tissue nutrition is disrupted due to the fact that the mucous membrane of the cervical canal at the site of eversion does not fully fulfill its function. Most often, tissue infection and inflammation occurs and pseudo-erosion of the cervix is formed.
Symptoms of the cervical ectropion
In most cases, cervical ectropion is asymptomatic. But when, due to pathology, inflammation occurs and other concomitant diseases appear, discharge begins to appear from the vagina – leucorrhoea, the menstrual cycle may be disrupted in the form of menorrhagias and the patient usually feels pain in the lumbar region and lower abdomen.
Diagnostics of the ectropion
A congenital disease can be detected by a hormone test. The acquired ectropion is found during a thorough examination by a gynecologist, using a mirror, which reflects the eversion of the mucous membrane of the cervical canal and scar tissue at the site of injury. There are cases when ectropion is confused with pseudo-erosion, an erroneous diagnosis is made and inappropriate treatment is carried out.
After examination, the patient is sent for an extended colposcopy, for research on leukoplakia, pseudo-erosion and other possible disorders. The most severe disorders are observed with severe deformation of the cervix.
It is very important to eliminate the cervical ectropion as soon as possible after its detection. The further pregnancy of a woman, the risk of tumor processes, depends on the speed of treatment. The doctor chooses a method of treatment, taking into account many factors, such as: the patient’s age, the picture of the revealed changes in the cervix, the state of reproductive function, and others. Medication is used, which consists in taking immunomodulators, anti-inflammatory, hormonal and antibacterial drugs, as well as moxibustion with an electric current – diathermocoagulation, after which a scar is formed at the site of the ectropion and the cervix gradually returns to its place.
In more severe cases, instead of diathermocoagulation, surgical treatment is used with laser, electrical, and radio wave shape correction.
With a very pronounced ectropion, conization is used – the surgical removal of tissue that looks like a cone.