Menstruation is the process of shedding the layer of the endometrium, the mucous membrane of the uterine cavity, and its excretion along with bloody impurities through the genital tract. Menstruation normally occurs in every woman of reproductive age.
The fact that menstruation is a monthly phenomenon is a rather conditional statement. The first day of spotting is the first day of the next menstrual cycle. As a rule, each cycle normally has a duration of twenty-eight to thirty-five days, although, of course, there are exceptions. If the beginning of the next menstrual cycle is inconsistent, if its duration is irregular, a woman should consult a gynecologist, since menstrual cycle failures may indicate any pathology of the reproductive system.
First menstruation in girls
The first menstruation in girls, or menarche, is one of the most basic signs that a girl has become puberty. In other words, the first menstruation indicates that puberty is over. Meanwhile, the development of the body of a young girl with the onset of the first menstruation has not yet been verified, which explains the extremely low probability of pregnancy at this age, since the pelvic organs have not yet fully developed, and they cannot bear pregnancy. Although, of course, there are exceptions.
The first menstruation usually comes one to four years after a girl shows the initial signs of puberty. The very first sign of puberty is the swelling of the mammary glands, their increase in size. If, after four years, the first menstruation does not come from breast augmentation, then the girl must either turn to a gynecologist herself for help, or turn to her parents with such a request. A visit to the gynecologist in the absence of the first menstruation on time is necessary to exclude possible developmental pathologies, hormonal disorders and other abnormalities.
It should be noted that the average age of the arrival of the first menstruation is declining according to statistics in many countries of the world, in particular in European countries. If in the last decades of the nineteenth century the beginning of the first menstruation was normal from 17 to 18 years old, now this framework has shifted by 11-14 years. This conditional norm “jumped” throughout the development of mankind, as this was facilitated by the cultural characteristics of a particular time and state, the environmental characteristics of the environment, the themes of life, and many other factors.
First menstruation – possible pathologies
An earlier or, on the contrary, later onset of the first menstruation may be related to pathologies of the genitourinary system or to health disorders of other internal organs. With early puberty in girls, as early as eight years old, an increase in the mammary glands and the growth of hair on the body can begin. Such symptoms may indicate the development of pathologies of the ovaries, hypothalamus or pituitary gland. Meanwhile, in some cases, the early onset of the first menstruation can be considered as a variant of the norm, for example, if the girl has a genetic predisposition. With early puberty and an excessively early onset of the first menstruation, the girl must be shown to a gynecologist to determine her state of health. Symptoms of a late onset of the first menstruation may be the absence of the mammary glands in a girl by the age of fifteen and menarche by the age of seventeen. As a rule, with late and early puberty, we are talking about pathologies of the endocrine system.