The birth of a child is an important event in every family. But, unfortunately, not every woman can experience the joy of motherhood if there are serious health problems. From early childhood, girls are warned not to sit in a cold place, saying at the same time – “so as not to catch a cold.” After all, every mother and grandmother knows what unpleasant consequences various inflammations of the female reproductive system can lead to.
One of the main causes of infertility is obstruction of the fallopian tubes. This pathology can develop for a long time without obvious special signs. Even menstruation proceeds strictly according to the schedule. A woman may not be aware of this until she goes to the doctor with a question about infertility. Therefore, as a rule, the disease is detected during the diagnosis.
The cause of obstruction of the fallopian tubes can be:
– Congenital pathology (underdevelopment of the ovaries, uterus or absence of fallopian tubes);
– Consequence of transferred infectious and inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, endometritis, salpingitis, tuberculosis and other sexual diseases);
– Use of intrauterine devices;
– Complications after childbirth or after artificial termination of pregnancy ;
– Previous surgery on the pelvic organs (appendectomy, removal of ovarian cysts, fibroids or fallopian tubes in ectopic pregnancy).
All these disorders lead to the formation of adhesions – these are bands of connective tissue that block the passage of the fallopian tubes, which leads to the impossibility of fertilization. But if this still happens, the fertilized egg cannot enter the uterus and remains in the tube – this is an ectopic pregnancy, which is removed by surgery.
In such cases, correct diagnosis is very important. Now this problem is being solved with the help of the latest medical technologies and modern methods of treatment: laparoscopy, echohysterosalpingoscopy and hysterosalpingography (HSG).
Laparoscopy is carried out with punctures of the lateral zones and in the navel area, for the introduction of a video camera and the necessary instruments into the abdominal cavity. With this method, it is possible to diagnose other causes of infertility (endometriosis, polycystic ovaries, etc.). Not only the problem is established, but, if possible, its elimination by dissecting adhesions. After that, a solution is injected through the cervical canal, which, if the tubes are successfully cleared, should pass them and enter the abdominal cavity.
During hysterosalpingography, a contrast fluid is injected into the fallopian tubes. And the x-ray shows whether this contrast has penetrated into the fallopian tubes. Sometimes such a diagnosis can also bring a therapeutic effect, when the injected solution has a flushing effect, especially in early cases of the disease. But sometimes the contrast agent cannot enter the tubes due to their spasms, so this method can give an erroneous result by 20%.
Ehogisterosalpingoscopy is performed by ultrasound, after the introduction of saline into the uterine cavity. In case of obstruction, the uterine cavity expands. Compared to HSG, this method can be performed several times, since it does not use radiation exposure.