Many believe that rubella is a fairly mild disease. But this definition of this disease applies exclusively to children. People after 20 years of age suffer an infection much more difficult. As for pregnant women, for them to get rubella means one thing – to lose a child.
Rubella virus is an anthroponotic infection. The causative agent is transmitted only from a sick person to a healthy person by airborne droplets (during a conversation) or by contact-household means. From the onset of the disease to the appearance of the first signs, 14 to 25 days pass.
In the first 14 days, the disease is asymptomatic. Then, small light pink spots appear on the skin of the face, which do not rise above the surface of the skin. A little later, these spots spread throughout the body. The next symptom of rubella is a slight fever. Headache, loss of appetite, general weakness, chills, joint pain, runny nose and swollen lymph nodes are also possible.
Rubella danger for pregnant women
Researchers have proved that if a woman becomes infected with rubella in the first weeks of pregnancy, in 80% of cases the virus also enters the fetus. Statistics show that the most dangerous period in this regard for the embryo is the first trimester of pregnancy. But even at the 5th month, the possibility of damage to the fetus is not excluded.
Rubella virus in most cases crosses the placental barrier and is transmitted from the infected mother to the baby. Among the pathologies resulting from congenital rubella , deafness, heart disease, and cataracts are most common. In addition to this “triad”, the child’s respiratory system and hematopoietic system may be damaged. In children born with rubella syndrome, there is a delay in mental, mental and physical development.
As medical practice shows, in women who have had rubella during pregnancy, healthy babies are rarely born. In most cases, the infection leads to fetal malformation, miscarriage or stillbirth. Among all intrauterine infections from which children die, rubella virus is in fifth place.
In addition to these disappointing facts, the danger of rubella during pregnancy is that the disease can significantly complicate the birth process itself. In the process of childbirth, bleeding can open, labor can be disrupted, and, worst of all, blood poisoning can occur.
Pregnant women who are affected by this infection are usually referred for medical abortion. However, abortion is performed if the infection is diagnosed before 28 weeks.
How to protect yourself from infection?
Most often , children are the carriers of the rubella virus . The risk category most often includes children who attend various circles, sections or go to kindergarten. That is why if a family already has a child, the risk of getting a pregnant woman (mother, close relative) increases many times.
When planning a pregnancy, a woman needs to donate blood for the presence of IgG class antibodies. If any, the woman has nothing to worry about.
Women who have had rubella in childhood may not worry about re-infection, as they develop stable lifelong immunity against this dangerous virus. In addition, modern medicine has a rubella vaccine.
Vaccination allows women who did not suffer from rubella in childhood, not to be afraid that the unborn child is at risk of infection. Moreover, rubella virus antibodies are transmitted to the infant from the mother through breast milk. In order to prevent the disease, it is recommended to vaccinate people living under the same roof with the expectant mother.