Anemia is a reduction in hemoglobin in the blood serum. With anemia , there is a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin in a unit of blood volume. In other words, the total amount of blood in the body is normal, but there is less hemoglobin in the blood.
Iron deficiency and true anemia in pregnant women
As a rule, in ninety percent of cases, anemia in pregnant women is iron-deficient in nature. Iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy involves a condition in which the amount of one of the most important components of hemoglobin, iron, is reduced in the blood. Among Russian women, about fifteen percent suffer from iron deficiency anemia. This figure may vary due to pregnant women. Often, iron deficiency anemia occurs in women in a latent form and can only be detected during pregnancy. The development of iron deficiency anemia is associated with several factors. The main reason for the development of iron deficiency anemia is the inability of the digestive organs to absorb more than two micrograms of iron per day, regardless of how much iron-containing foods a person consumes. Approximately one microgram of iron is excreted naturally from the body every day. Excretion occurs with urine and sweat, with exfoliation of the skin epithelium. Women of childbearing age, especially during menstruation, lose from forty to sixty micrograms of iron. At the same time, only twenty micrograms enter the body with food during this time.
An iron deficiency of thirty micrograms is replenished at the expense of the body’s own reserves in about a month. In other words, in women, it occurs from one menstrual cycle to the next. During the period of bearing a child, childbirth, during the period of lactation in the female body, iron is actively consumed, so not only the mother’s body, but also the child needs it.
True anemia in pregnant women is also quite common. Now, almost forty percent of pregnant women are diagnosed with true anemia.
Causes of anemia in pregnant women
As already mentioned, anemia in pregnant women is caused by several reasons. Often the cause of anemia is a violation of the process of iron absorption by the stomach from the corresponding foods. In addition, the so-called placenta previa may predispose to the development of anemia in pregnant women . Most often, anemia occurs during pregnancy under conditions such as severe toxicosis, multiple pregnancies and some chronic diseases.
Most often, anemia in pregnant women develops in the winter and spring months, since food products contain a small amount of vitamins. In addition, the process of hematopoiesis is affected by sex hormones – male hormones improve the absorption of iron into the body, while female hormones, on the contrary, worsen this process. This is the reason why girls often suffer from anemia in adolescence. This condition during pregnancy can easily turn into iron deficiency anemia. Anemia in pregnant women is usually detected at the very beginning of gestation . In such cases, it is customary to say that anemia developed in a woman before pregnancy.
Anemia in pregnant women is dangerous for the development of the fetus, as it provokes the development of complications. Toxicosis, the development of which is promoted by anemia, negatively affects the well-being of the woman and the fetus. Almost forty percent of pregnant women suffering from anemia are diagnosed with gestosis – protein in the urine, swelling, high blood pressure and other disorders.