Moderate oligohydramnios is a condition of a pregnant woman in which there is a decrease in the volume of amniotic fluid. Moderate oligohydramnios is recorded more often than an excess amount of amniotic fluid. Moderate oligohydramnios may indicate any complications of pregnancy that may adversely affect the intrauterine development of the baby.
Amniotic fluid is a liquid that contains the nutrients necessary for the proper development of the child, oxygen, vitamins, salts and hormonal compounds. In addition to the function of nourishing the fetus, amniotic fluid performs a protective function – it prevents the negative impact on the fetus of environmental factors and infectious pathologies.
What determines the amount of amniotic fluid?
The amount of amniotic fluid, depending on the duration of pregnancy and the needs of the developing child, is constantly changing. For example, in the last three months, the volume of amniotic fluid is from a liter to one and a half liters. They say about moderate oligohydramnios if these indicators are below the norm.
In obstetric practice, there were cases when there was practically no amniotic fluid – such oligohydramnios is called severe.
With the development of moderate oligohydramnios, when the amount of amniotic fluid is slightly less than normal, a woman should establish a diet, eat a variety of foods rich in vitamins and minerals, adhere to a sparing regimen, and be regularly observed by a doctor to avoid deterioration.
Severe oligohydramnios requires more drastic measures. With the development of severe oligohydramnios, medications are prescribed, sometimes treatment is carried out in a hospital. With a severe shortage of amniotic fluid, fetal pathologies can develop:
- bone tissue disorders;
- pathological development of the limbs;
- oxygen starvation;
- leading to disruption of the CNS.
Moderate oligohydramnios – causes
The reasons for the development of the state of moderate oligohydramnios have not yet been thoroughly studied. According to the statistics of obstetric practice, the development of moderate oligohydramnios leads to:
- incorrect or insufficient development of the epithelial tissue covering the amniotic fluid, or low secretory work of this membrane;
- developmental disorders and anomalies in the intrauterine life of a child. Such pathologies include disorders in the development of the kidneys, genetic inheritance in the development of the kidneys and face.
- bacterial infections that a woman suffered before pregnancy and which were not completely cured before the conception of a baby can lead to the development of moderate oligohydramnios. With this outcome, the pathogenic flora is found not only in the birth canal, but also in the amniotic fluid itself.
- pregnancy with multiple fetuses can cause oligohydramnios. This process is related to the uneven distribution of blood in the placenta. In other words, one child gets more nutrients and the other less.
Other causes of low water
The cause of moderate oligohydramnios may be increased blood pressure, often observed in pregnant women. Of course, during the bearing of a child, the pressure jumps in almost every expectant mother. But these deviations, subject to a normal pregnancy, usually do not cause concern. If the pressure jumps significantly, then oligohydramnios may occur.
The severity of oligohydramnios is related to blood pressure readings.
Prolongation of pregnancy can cause the development of moderate oligohydramnios. That is, the membrane of the placenta should already stop working in terms of time, it ages and exfoliates, becoming unable to function. In this case, the problem is solved by holding an artificial birth.