Gynecological diseases, especially benign tumors of the genital organs, account for almost 30% of all “female” diseases. Most often they occur in middle-aged women (28-40 years old), since almost all diseases of this type are hormonally dependent. The most common diseases at this age are uterine fibroids and adenomyosis . Treatment of these pathologies is possible both conservative and surgical.
Uterine fibroids: pathogenesis, symptoms
Uterine myoma is a benign neoplasm that forms in the myometrium , the muscle tissue of the uterus. This is not cancer, as many women tend to think, and it is not always necessary to operate on myoma. The decision on treatment in each case is made purely individually, since it all depends on the size of the neoplasm, the degree of development, location and many other factors.
Myoma appears as a result of intense abnormal cell division of the uterus. Doctors tend to think that this is due, first of all, to an increase in the secretion of estrogen. That is why fibroids almost never occur in young girls. Very often, this disease is asymptomatic, but fibroids can still be recognized by some of its characteristic features. Moreover, uterine fibroids and adenomyosis , another pathology of the uterus, are somewhat similar in symptoms, therefore, to make an accurate diagnosis, it is not enough just to examine the patient – the diagnosis requires more detailed and thorough.
So, the main symptoms of fibroids include excessive bleeding during menstruation, discomfort in the lower abdomen, lower back pain, and menstrual irregularities. If at least one such symptom occurs, you should contact your gynecologist as soon as possible.
Adenomyosis : pathogenesis, symptoms
Adenomyosis is an inflammatory intrauterine pathology, a type of endometriosis. With this disease, the cells of the lining of the uterus (endometrium) begin to grow strongly, penetrating into the muscle layer. And with myoma, and with adenomyosis , an abnormally rapid division of cells in different layers of the uterus occurs. In the first case, the tumor consists of myometrial cells , in the second – the basis of the pathological neoplasm is the cells of the mucous membrane of the uterus.
The symptoms of adenomyosis are very similar to those of fibroids. Women complain of changes and irregularities in the menstrual cycle, brown discharge between periods, discomfort in the lower abdomen, pain during intercourse. However, most often both of these diseases occur without any symptoms, which is another common feature.
Uterine fibroids and adenomyosis are both benign and amenable to a variety of treatments. If the patient is young and is still going to give birth, the fibroids must be removed. In this case, myomectomy is considered the best option, since the uterus is almost not damaged, and the woman can count on a normal pregnancy. If the fibroid does not increase in size, and the woman is not going to give birth, then you just need to choose the right hormonal therapy.
Both uterine fibroids and adenomyosis require constant monitoring by a gynecologist, since if the fibroid begins to grow, it will have to be surgically removed. Cases of such a strong growth are not uncommon that it is necessary to remove not only the entire uterus, but also the appendages.
Adenomyosis is also treated with either hormonal drugs (for example, oral contraceptives), or promptly. Recently, the foci of the disease began to be cauterized in order to avoid their further growth. It must be remembered that both fibroids and adenomyosis can lead to infertility, as well as develop into a malignant form.
With a timely visit to a gynecologist, most women manage to keep the uterus relatively healthy and stop the process of cell proliferation. However, with an advanced stage of the disease, only one way out is possible – the complete removal of the uterus. Prevention of benign uterine tumors is the best way to treat them, so all women from 25 to 50 years old are strongly advised to undergo a gynecological examination twice a year.