Most women endure pregnancy without complications, but in 12-27% of expectant mothers this process is associated not only with a deterioration in health, but even sometimes with the risk of losing life.
Preeclampsia is a functional discrepancy between the systems of the female body in late pregnancy and the needs of a growing fetus. The woman’s body is not able to independently provide the growing fetus with oxygen and nutrients, and this condition is entirely associated with the onset of pregnancy. Preeclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of pregnancy and continues until its very end, sometimes capturing even 2-3 weeks after childbirth.
The mechanism of development of preeclampsia in pregnant women
Toxic substances that affect the body damage the walls of blood vessels, the protein, together with the liquid part of the blood, penetrates the tissues, resulting in edema. Protein passes through the kidneys into the urine (proteinuria). Due to the fact that the amount of blood circulating in the vessels decreases, vasospasm occurs and blood pressure rises. Also, oxygen starvation immediately occurs, from which not only the organs of the pregnant woman suffer, but also the fetus itself.
The three main symptoms are edema, high blood pressure, and proteinuria. Sometimes a pregnant woman has all the symptoms, and sometimes one or two of these.
Preeclampsia can occur against the background of another disease (diabetes mellitus, pyelonephritis, obesity), or it can occur on its own.
Edema is an early symptom of preeclampsia, a pregnant woman can notice it herself. Edema occurs on the legs (mild form), but sometimes affects the face. Do not worry, edema occurs during a normal pregnancy. It is very important to monitor the weight and avoid sudden increases.
Preeclampsia is a preeclampsia that combines an increase in blood pressure, proteinuria and edema. There are three forms of preeclampsia : mild,
medium and heavy.
Eclampsia is a severe manifestation of preeclampsia. A pregnant woman may experience spasms of the whole body. Large fluctuations in blood pressure are very dangerous, which can lead to a stroke, as well as placental abruption, which will lead to hypoxia and fetal death.
Preeclampsia can take a long time, but can develop a few days before eclampsia. In both cases, this leads to fetal hypoxia.
Symptoms of preeclampsia
A pregnant woman can be diagnosed with preeclampsia based on the following factors. It is necessary to pass a biochemical and general urine test, as well as check the condition of the blood coagulation system and the total number of platelets.
Weigh yourself regularly to detect swelling. According to the norms, a pregnant woman in the 2nd half of pregnancy should add 350-500 g per week.
Blood pressure should be measured on both hands, with preeclampsia this difference is significant. You should also conduct an examination of the fundus by an ophthalmologist and, to detect hypoxia, do an ultrasound of the fetus.
All pregnant women undergo such tests, but special attention should be paid to those who are at risk: women with chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, pyelonephritis, obesity), the age of the pregnant woman after 35 years, women with multiple pregnancies, women with genital infections , as well as primiparas.
The goal of treatment is to restore the normal health of the pregnant woman. It is very important to follow all the recommendations of the doctor in the 2nd half of pregnancy. Treatment of gestosis can only be carried out under the supervision of a specialist. If gestosis occurs in a mild form, then you can follow the doctor’s recommendations at home, while a complex form requires round-the-clock monitoring in a hospital.
If severe fetal hypoxia is observed or the condition of the pregnant woman is rapidly deteriorating, and the treatment does not give any effect, then childbirth will be the only right decision. Often, with gestosis, a caesarean section is performed.
Regular weighing, passing the necessary tests and measuring blood pressure will allow timely detection of incipient preeclampsia. And proper nutrition and walking in the fresh air will help reduce hypoxia and improve blood supply to tissues.
Of particular importance during pregnancy, complicated by preeclampsia, is the professionalism of obstetrician-gynecologists. An experienced doctor will be able to foresee and minimize the risks associated with the development of this condition and help the future mother avoid complications.