Mammology is a branch of medicine that studies the mammary gland – its structure, functions, features of development, is engaged in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the mammary glands in women. The separation of mammology into a separate field of medicine occurred relatively recently. The importance of mammology now cannot be overestimated in light of the growing number of cases of breast cancer around the world. It is also worth noting that breast cancer is “getting younger”, that is, the age of patients suffering from breast cancer is getting smaller. In addition, the importance of mammology is determined by modern environmental conditions, since an unfavorable environmental situation, constant stress and a fast pace of life are factors that provoke the development of problems with the mammary glands.
Specialists in the field of mammology are developing the most modern and effective methods and means for the prevention and treatment of pathological processes associated with the female mammary glands.
What is mammology – risk factors for the development of pathologies of the mammary glands
Various factors can lead to the development of a breast lesion. Among them, it is necessary to highlight the main conditions. One of the most important reasons for the development of breast pathologies is the artificial termination of pregnancy, since in this situation the hormonal background of the female body, which is already tuned in to bearing a fetus, breaks down sharply. This is followed by the refusal of breastfeeding, except for those cases when the refusal of lactation is dictated by medical indications. Among other factors in the development of diseases of the mammary glands, which are taken into account by mammology, it is worth listing – endocrine disorders, ovarian dysfunction, first pregnancy over the age of thirty, diseases of the pelvic organs of infectious origin, prolonged use of hormonal drugs, for example, oral contraceptives, mechanical injuries chest, constant stress, physical and emotional overstrain, psychological experiences. When talking about the pathologies of the mammary glands, it is impossible not to point out hereditary predisposition as provoking factors for irregular sexual relations. By the way, it is heredity that is often the underlying cause of the development of breast cancer.
It has been proven that the risk of developing oncological lesions of the mammary glands increases if the patient leads a certain lifestyle, in particular, is addicted to bad habits – alcohol and cigarettes. Recent studies show that even seemingly innocuous things like sunburn and diet can increase the risk of cancer. Mammology is the study of all these regularities.
What is mammology – when to see a doctor
Ideally, starting at the age of twenty, every woman should have an annual examination by a mammologist. In addition, prevention of the development of pathologies of the mammary glands involves self-palpation of the breast for seals and nodes. If there is any doubt about the condition of the breast tissue, then you should immediately contact a mammologist. In relation to the prevention of the development of diseases, it is self-examination that plays a decisive role.
There are also situations when it is necessary to contact a mammologist immediately, even if there is no tangible discomfort. These situations include:
– swelling in the tissues of the mammary gland, even if they do not cause discomfort;
– breast deformity;
– any changes in the skin of the breast;
– swelling of the lymph nodes in the armpits.
Women are diagnosed with infertility if they fail to get pregnant after twelve months of regular unprotected intercourse.
The causes of infertility in women are different in nature and development. It is necessary to understand the causes of infertility in women, since the treatment regimen for this condition depends on it.
Causes of infertility in women
Violations of the formation and maturation of the egg is the most common cause of infertility in women. Behind this problem, as a rule, are hormonal disorders that occur in women much more often than in the representatives of the stronger sex. Violation of the hormonal ratio can adversely affect not only the formation of the egg, but also the process of ovulation and the maturation of the corpus luteum. Violation of the ovaries may be related to disorders of the endocrine system. In the case when an endocrine disorder is considered as the only reason for a woman’s inability to become pregnant, the treatment of infertility in women consists in restoring the normal balance of hormones and provoking the formation of an egg. If the causes of infertility in women are numerous, then the treatment is selected strictly individually.
In a fairly large number of cases, the cause of infertility in women is the formation of a large number of cysts in the female ovaries. In this case, they talk about such a disease as polycystic ovaries. Most often, this condition occurs in combination with an increased concentration of male sex hormones. With polycystic ovaries, infertility is usually due to a disorder in the formation of eggs. An effective treatment for female infertility of this etiology is to stimulate the maturation of the egg by administering follicle-stimulating hormone.
The fallopian tubes are a kind of pathway for sperm to reach the egg. If there are adhesions or any other obstructions in the fallopian tubes, then the movement of the eggs is difficult or becomes completely impossible. Obstruction of the uterine tubes can occur due to inflammation, previous pregnancies, surgery, or sudden development of the endometrial layer. With fatal obstruction of the fallopian tubes, an in vitro fertilization procedure is indicated.
Endometriosis is a disease in which there is an overgrowth of the endometrial layer, and which is one of the causes of infertility in women. Until now, doctors cannot say exactly what is the cause of the development of this pathological phenomenon. Endometriosis can occur in the uterus, ovaries, bladder, and other internal organs. If endometriosis is found in the tubes of the uterus, then the tubes become overgrown with scar tissue and cease to be able to perform their main function. It is for this reason that endometriosis is considered as a direct referral to the in vitro fertilization procedure.
Pathological changes in the cervix or the uterus itself can also make it impossible for a woman to become pregnant. Due to surgical interventions or disorders of the protective functions of the immunity of the uterine cervix, conception may be difficult or impossible. The solution to the problem of infertility in women with such a reason is artificial (in vitro) fertilization.
Another cause of female infertility is uterine fibroids. I must say that a woman who conceives with this pathology runs the risk of not bearing a child. The treatment of female infertility for this reason is a surgical operation.
Violations of the formation of the ovaries, fallopian tubes or uterus can lead to infertility. It is extremely rare that the causes of infertility in a woman lie in congenital malformations of the internal organs that are part of the reproductive system.