Diagnosis ” adenomyosis ” – what does it mean?

Any irregularities in the menstrual cycle are dangerous for a woman. When the appearance of the discharge changes, its frequency is violated, pains of a different nature occur, malfunctions of the reproductive system begin. If lower back pain appears, and bleeding appears later than the due date, it is quite possible that the reason for this is the gynecological disease adenomyosis . How doctors diagnose adenomyosis what it means, what are the consequences of such a problem and how to prevent the development of the disease, every woman should know.   

What is adenomyosis

The mucous membrane lining the uterine cavity is called the endometrium. Throughout the menstrual cycle, the endometrium grows in preparation for the reception of a fertilized egg. If pregnancy does not occur, then the surface layer of the endometrium is rejected and bleeding occurs, which is called menstruation. The remaining layer of the endometrium continues to develop in the next menstrual cycle.

The endometrium and the muscular layer of the uterus are separated by a small layer of tissue. With the normal course of the menstrual cycle, the endometrium grows only inside the uterine cavity, and its surface periodically thickens evenly.

If this process is disturbed and a pathology occurs, that is, adenomyosis disease , the endometrium sprout arbitrarily through the tissues of the dividing layer and grows into the muscle walls of the uterus. The muscles of the uterus respond to invasion by the endometrium by thickening separate bundles of uterine tissue around the invading layers of the endometrium. Due to the increase in muscles, the uterus increases and its shape changes.

Thus, if a woman hears from her gynecologist the disappointing words ” diagnosis of adenomyosis “, she must understand that this is nothing more than a change in the uterus due to a violation of the structure of its tissues.  

Forms of adenomyosis

In some cases, the ingrown endometrial tissue accumulates in the uterine muscle in the form of local foci. This form of the disease is called a focal form. When the endometrium grows into the muscle tissue of the uterus without the formation of isolated foci, a diffuse form of the disease is diagnosed. Sometimes there is adenomyosis , which combines both forms of the disease.

It happens that the endometrium, when introduced into the myometrium, forms nodes similar to the nodes of uterine fibroids. The difference from fibroids is that connective tissue and a glandular component predominate in the endometrial nodes, while myoma nodes consist of smooth muscle tissues. This form of the disease is called nodular adenomyosis .

In the process of detecting the disease using ultrasound examination, the nodes of adenomyosis are very similar to the nodes of uterine fibroids, which makes accurate diagnosis very difficult. In addition, a combination of uterine fibroids and adenomyosis often occurs . Despite the similarity in the treatment of these pathologies, it is extremely important to establish an accurate diagnosis. Correct diagnosis will make the treatment more effective.

Having diagnosed the patient with adenomyosis , explaining in detail what it is , for the disease, in what form it develops, the doctor must also tell about the reasons provoking the development of the pathology. The main negative factors in this case include:  

– abortion, especially accompanied by subsequent cleaning of the uterus;

– removal of nodes with uterine fibroids;

– the process of childbirth;

– various inflammatory diseases of the uterus;

– surgical interventions in the uterus.

Very rarely, adenomyosis can occur as a result of impaired intrauterine development. Also, the cause of the disease can be a poor opening of the cervical canal during menstruation, which has a negative effect on the endometrium and contributes to its ingrowth into the muscles of the uterus.

If pain occurs in the pelvic and lower back, changes in the nature of discharge and menstrual irregularities, it is necessary to undergo a gynecological examination. Untimely treatment of adenomyosis is fraught with the risk of infertility and the occurrence of cancer. 

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