Women Health. Ovarian cyst


The rhythm of life of a modern woman, diet, social environment, working conditions, family microclimate, her worldview - everything can affect the development of the pathology of the female reproductive system, including a disease such as an ovarian cyst. If a woman is often stressed enough, then the endocrine system is subjected to a special attack. Improper functioning of the endocrine system will necessarily affect the functioning of the ovaries, and the risk of occurrence and development of ovarian cysts will increase many times. As a rule, a lot depends on the woman herself - how attentive she is to her own health, how she regularly visits a gynecologist. Ovarian cyst is a disease that is characterized by the absence of severe symptoms, and therefore is especially dangerous. Only a doctor can detect a cyst using ultrasound. It is for this reason that it is extremely important to regularly consult an experienced gynecologist. Detection of an ovarian cyst at an early stage will help to avoid the development of complications - ovarian cysts, polycystic cysts, enlarged cysts, twisting, rupture of an ovarian cyst, etc. All these diseases can already be accompanied by painful symptoms, and treatment of an ovarian cyst in such cases without surgical intervention is extremely difficult . Ovarian cysts in advanced conditions can lead to infertility. And in especially severe cases - to ovarian cancer.

Women Health

Why do gynecologists recommend women to undergo a routine examination twice a year? The answer to this question can be expressed in a few words - many diseases have no symptoms, and they can be detected only during the examination by a gynecologist. Among these diseases is an ovarian cyst.

What is an ovarian cyst?

Ovarian cyst is a pathological formation. It is characterized by the appearance in the tissues of the ovary of small "cones" that are filled with liquid. There are several stages of the growth of cysts, and as the disease is neglected, a cyst from one species passes into another. The ovarian cyst is divided into several types: follicular, corpus luteum, dermoid, mucinous, endometroid. The latter two can develop into malignant tumors and spread to significant areas.

A gynecologist must be consulted for a routine examination twice a year in order to timely detect emerging pathological changes and treat diseases at an early stage. Diagnosis is by ultrasound, where the doctor can examine the uterine cavity and identify even small formations.


Although most ovarian cysts are asymptomatic, in some cases a dull abdominal pain or a pressing feeling of fullness appears. Ovarian cysts can cause pain during sexual contact and at other times. In case of severe pain, hospitalization is necessary. Abdominal pain and pressure can be caused by a number of factors:

  • Bleeding or rupture of a cyst and, as a result, irritation of the abdominal tissues
  • Large cyst size
  • Twisting of the cyst, disrupting the flow of blood to it

Irregular painful periods later than usual - a common symptom of ovarian cysts. An increase in size or bloating may also indicate the presence of ovarian cysts.

As a rule, an ovarian cyst is accidentally diagnosed by a doctor during an ultrasound examination.

But there are many factors that provoke this disease.

Reason for occurrence

The main causes of the disease are: hormonal disruptions, abortion, endocrine and folliculogenetic disorders, hypothyroidism. Most often, patients who showed an ovarian cyst had hormonal imbalance, which in turn was provoked due to excessive stress, stress, emotional depression, and depression. All diseases from nerves - this is a very true remark, which can be attributed to the appearance of ovarian cysts.

Ovarian cysts can be considered a common disease, as it appears in about 30% of patients with a regular menstrual cycle and in 50% with an irregular one. It is worth noting that with the onset of menopause, the likelihood of ovarian cysts is noticeably less - about 6%.

The mechanism of development of the ovarian cyst

Consider the mechanism of occurrence and development of ovarian cysts. The main task of the ovary is ovulation - the release of the egg. The ovaries produce hormones that regulate the maturation of the follicle and the formation of the corpus luteum inside it. At a certain point in the menstrual cycle, the follicle bursts, and the egg goes outside, ovulation occurs. If this did not happen, the egg was not ejected, then the non-bursted follicle is transformed into a follicular cyst. If the follicle burst, then an outpouring of the corpus luteum into the cavity of the ovary occurs from it. During normal operation of the ovaries, the corpus luteum should have a reverse cycle of development and disappear, if the ovaries are disturbed, then the corpus luteum is transformed into a cyst of the corpus luteum. There are other types of ovarian cysts. The classification of cysts is determined by the fluid they contain. Common to all types of cysts is their structure. An ovarian cyst is a formation inside the ovary that resembles a pouch or bladder and has liquid contents.


Follicular cyst

The follicular ovarian cyst is an insignificant formation that occurs due to the fact that the mature follicle does not rupture and the egg does not exit (ovulation). Such a disease is considered not complicated, and amenable to simple treatment with medications.

Corpus luteum cyst

The corpus luteum cyst of the ovary occurs after the development of a follicular cyst. After some time, the follicular cyst, filled with fluid, bursts, and a yellow body appears in this place. It appears to produce progesterone, but if development does not occur, then a cyst of the corpus luteum of the ovary is formed.

It is believed that this disease is not complicated, but if not treated, it will increase in size and can reach 11 cm.

Dermoid cyst

A dermoid cyst consists of embryonic germ layers. A woman may experience a slight increase in temperature, malfunctions in the menstrual cycle, appear asymmetry of the abdomen, constipation, frequent urination.

Mucinous cyst

A mucinous cyst consists of several chambers that contain mucous fluid. There is a violation in the menstrual cycle - there are scanty or copious discharge, accompanied by aching pain.

Endometroid cyst

Endometroid ovarian cyst is the occurrence of several foci of endometriotic nature. As a rule, with a disease, a woman has severe aching pain in the lower abdomen, which becomes permanent before menstruation. A cyst brings significant harm to a woman’s health: infertility, adhesions in the pelvis, disorders of the genitourinary system appear, and the stomach increases asymmetrically.

Any cyst can provoke various complications, and if it has reached one of the last three stages, then the likelihood of negative manifestations increases. Suppuration, rupture, twisting of the cyst legs may appear. In this case, the following symptoms are observed:

  1. nausea or vomiting (there is no relief)
  2. temperature increase up to 38-39С
  3. sudden pain in the lower abdomen
  4. tension of the anterior abdominal wall
  5. cardiopalmus

Treatment and contraindications

There are various treatment tactics. The fact is that there are different cysts, including functional ones. Their appearance is associated with hormonal imbalance or impaired ovarian function. Such formations disappear on their own. It takes from a few weeks to several months. The patient can spend all this time passively waiting for recovery.

And it may happen that the doctor prescribes a woman a special hormone therapy, which will help get rid of the formation of cysts. It is usually recommended that you take individually selected oral contraceptives. But they can be taken only as prescribed by the gynecologist or even better - the gynecologist-endocrinologist.

Hence the first rule: a woman with an ovarian cyst should in no case take hormones without consulting her doctor. The fact is that there are several types of such medicines. Some of them can reduce the size of the cyst, while others can increase them and delay the recovery time.

Rule two: a woman observed for a cyst should avoid thermal procedures on the lower abdomen. In this case, increased blood circulation of the pelvic organs, including the ovaries. And this just needs to be avoided, otherwise the growth of the cyst and even its rupture are not excluded. That is why with such a problem you can not do a number of mud procedures.

All kinds of wraps, including algal ones, cannot be carried out. They have on the application area not only thermal, but also compressive effects, which can also be detrimental to the cyst, especially if it has large dimensions. Not recommended and a visit to the sauna.

Even more undesirable is going to the steam room. It is considered a cure for many ailments, however, with an ovarian cyst, it can only do harm. Indeed, during a long stay in humid and hot air, the body overheats even more than in a sauna. It is not recommended to take even a hot bath, it is better to replace it with a warm shower.

The list of undesirable things includes sun exposure. You can treat yourself with ultraviolet light. Sunbathing should only be in the morning or evening hours - until 11.00 or after 18.00 and no more than an hour. You can go to the solarium for 5-10 minutes once a week. And sunbathing only in a swimsuit.

You can do sports with an ovarian cyst, but you must abandon those exercises that provoke the appearance of negative pressure in the abdominal cavity. This is observed with a load on the rectus and oblique muscles of the abdomen. That is why it is necessary to sharply limit all variations on the theme of “lifting the torso from a prone position” and “lifting the legs from a prone position”.

All precautions must be followed carefully. It is better to play it safe and feel relaxed than to regret your own frivolity.


Often due to a careless attitude to her health, when a woman neglects regular visits to the gynecologist, the tumor is detected late.

A modern woman is quite capable of protecting herself from many diseases. Be literate - prophylactically visit a gynecologist at least 2 times a year, including to conduct an analysis for the presence / absence of microorganisms. A specialist consultation is especially necessary when a new sexual partner appears. Frequent changes in sexual partners negatively affect a woman’s health, and the risk of sexually transmitted infections increases. An important role is played by the selection of contraceptive methods. Only a doctor will help you choose the harmless and most effective method for protecting you from unwanted pregnancy according to your age, gynecological and hormonal status. In general, women should especially monitor their health status. All kinds of infectious and chronic diseases, especially chronic tonsillitis, tonsillitis, influenza, adversely affect the reproductive system. Preventively take vitamin preparations, eat right, exercise. Follow the rules of personal hygiene. In winter, you must always wear long warm clothes. Very dangerous hypothermia, especially during menstruation - this is the main way to inflammation of the appendages. No less harmful stay in wet panties and swimsuits. Underwear should be made of cotton, tights - with a minimum content of synthetics. Unwanted clothing squeezing the pelvic bones and blood vessels. Especially all this applies to teenage girls and expectant mothers. And in no case do not self-medicate.

Remember! Untimely access to a doctor can lead to the development of infertility, cancer and other complications.

Women's health and independent physical education

Social and medical activities do not give the expected effect in maintaining people's health. In the improvement of society, medicine went mainly along the path “from illness to health”, turning more and more into a purely medical, hospital one. Social activities are aimed primarily at improving the living environment and consumer goods, but not at raising a person.

How to maintain your health, achieve high performance, professional longevity?

The most justified way to increase the adaptive capabilities of the body, preserve health, prepare the person for fruitful labor, socially important activities - physical education and sports.

Today we are unlikely to find an educated person who would deny the great role of physical culture and sport in modern society. In sports clubs, regardless of age, millions of people are engaged in physical education. Sports achievements for the vast majority of them have ceased to be an end in themselves. Physical training “becomes a catalyst for life activity, a tool for breaking into the field of intellectual potential and longevity”. The technical process, freeing workers from the debilitating costs of manual labor, did not exempt them from the need for physical training and professional activity, but changed the tasks of this training.

The Ministry of Health cited the following statistics: women's reproductive health has worsened. Over the past five years, rates for inflammatory diseases have increased by 30.5%, complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period - by 21.8%. A marked increase in anemia of pregnant women. The number of normal births decreased from 45.3% in 1992 to 31.8% in 1997. The incidence of newborns over the past five years has increased by 16.5%, and in general, children over the past 6 years have become sick 3-4 times more often . The Ministry of Health notes a sharp increase in genital diseases in adolescent girls and an increase in neuropsychic disorders in young men. Of all children with syphilis in 1997, about 40% received it through sexual contact. In 1997, Russians made 2.3 million abortions, including about 1,600 artificial abortions in adolescents under 14 years of age. In percentage terms, only Romania is ahead of us. Abortion is one of the causes of infertility that affects 20% of Russian families.

These are the facts, no matter how sad it is to pronounce. But it is known that many adult diseases are laid in childhood, and sometimes in the womb. And the state of health and physical ability of today's girls, girls, women determine not only the present, but also the future health of the population of our country, its reserve functional capabilities and the immune system's resistance to diseases.

One of the reasons is that now the state forms of work in physical education and sports with the population in our country end simultaneously with the graduation of the educational institution. Whether it’s good or bad, but starting from a children's clinic, nursery, kindergarten, school, technical school, university, there are planned, included in the curriculum physical education classes under constant medical supervision. Many young people, including girls, at one level or another are engaged in mass sports optionally, in school or university sections. But they should go into an independent life, and these are twenty-year-olds, who still have their whole lives ahead, as all organizational forms end. The exception is only those who devote themselves to the sport of the highest achievements.

Physical culture and sport are one of the real, life-tested factors for maintaining and strengthening the health of all segments of the population, including women. In this paper, the question of the features of planning and conducting independent studies in women will be highlighted.

1. Functions of independent physical education in women

Uncontrolled physical education and sports, ignorance of the basic principles of physical education, the inability of a student to determine the degree of their fatigue, self-massage in time, go to a steam bath, choose an acceptable regime of the day, etc., can bring not so much benefit as harm.

“There is no Soviet physical education without medical supervision” - this slogan, put forward by the first People’s Commissar of Health N.A. Semashko, determined the basic principle of the system of physical education - the mandatory medical supervision during physical education and sports.

The formation of man at all stages of his evolutionary development took place inextricably linked with active muscle activity. The human body develops in constant motion. Nature herself has decreed that a person needs to develop his physical abilities.

Women Health

The child has not yet been born, and his future development is already interconnected with motor activity. The need for movement is a characteristic feature of a growing organism.

Unfortunately, an adult feels much less need for movement than a child. But movement is necessary, like food and sleep. Lack of food and sleep is captured by the body, causing a whole complex of painful sensations.

Motor impairment passes completely unnoticed, and is often accompanied even by a sense of comfort. With a deficit of motor activity, the body's resistance to colds and the action of pathogens decreases. Persons leading a sedentary lifestyle are more likely to suffer from respiratory and circulatory diseases.

A decrease in motor activity in combination with a violation of the lithium regimen and an improper lifestyle leads to the appearance of excess body weight due to the deposition of fat in the tissues.

A huge number of people of different ages are engaged in physical education in order to improve well-being, improve health, become strong, agile, hardy, have a slim figure, well-developed muscles. Physical education is a kind of compensation for the fact that we are deprived of such natural physical activities as running, jumping, swimming, walking, etc.

Performing physical exercises, a person enters the world of new sensations, positive emotions, gains a good mood, vivacity, cheerfulness, feels a surge of strength.

Medical science has established that systematic physical education, adherence to the proper motor and hygienic regimen are a powerful means of preventing many diseases, maintaining a normal level of activity and the health of the body.

When performing physical exercises from working muscles, joints and ligaments to the central nervous system, in particular, to the cerebral cortex, a large number of signals are received, which, in turn, from the central nervous system are sent to all internal organs - to the heart, lungs, muscles, etc. An increase in cardiac activity and respiration occurs, the speed of blood flow through the vessels increases, blood pressure rises, and metabolism increases. The degree of change in the activity of internal organs depends on the nature of the work; the more complex and intense muscle movement, the more pronounced changes in internal organs.

Regular exercise, especially in combination with breathing exercises, increase the mobility of the chest and diaphragm. For practitioners, breathing becomes rarer and deeper, and respiratory muscles more strong and hardy. With deep and rhythmic breathing, the blood vessels of the heart expand, resulting in improved nutrition and oxygen supply to the heart muscle.

Under the influence of regular physical exercises, the muscles of the person increase in volume, become stronger, their elasticity increases; in the muscles, the number of functioning capillaries that are at rest in a dormant position and the blood does not pass through them increases several times. With muscle contractions, the capillaries open, an increased blood movement begins in them. As a result, venous congestion decreases, the total amount of circulating blood increases and oxygen delivery to organs and tissues improves.

The state of our health depends to a large extent on how and how much we move. In addition, the influence of motor activity on our mood and mental performance is often greater than it seems at first glance. Unfortunately, the program for physical education in universities provides too little time for physical education. Independent systematic physical education is required. and sports. A daily portion of exercise should be as necessary for you as a morning toilet, like brushing your teeth. But first you must know that for the normal functioning of the body, each person needs a certain minimum of motor activity.

2. Planning and managing self-study

Not so long ago, experts determined how much time should be given to women to exercise in order to achieve a protective effect. These requirements were developed as a result of many years of research work. It turns out that not so much is needed. Here are three main principles that are easy to remember.

  • Train every other day or at least three times a week
  • Exercise continuously for 20 minutes.
  • Train vigorously, but watch your breath.

The Ministry of Health has determined the minimum norm for a weekly volume of physical activity of women - eight hours. We must remember: physical education is not a one-time event, not a Sunday or a month, it is a purposeful, strong-willed, regular physical self-education throughout life.

There are three forms of self-study:

  • Daily morning exercises.
  • Daily physical pause.
  • Independent physical education and sports (at least 2-3 times a week).

An important role is also played by the daily use of various hardening procedures (wiping, dousing, bathing).

Morning exercises (exercise) accelerates the bringing of the body to a healthy state, enhances the flow of blood and lymph in all parts of the body and speeds up breathing, which activates the metabolism and quickly removes the decay products accumulated overnight. Systematic charging improves blood circulation, strengthens the cardiovascular, nervous and respiratory systems, improves the activity of the digestive organs, and contributes to a more productive activity of the cerebral cortex. Regular morning physical exercises strengthen the motor apparatus, promote the development of physical qualities, especially such as strength, flexibility, and dexterity. In addition, during morning exercises you can learn the technique of many sports exercises; charging allows you to overcome the inactivity inherent in modern man, improve health, increase physical and mental performance.

When conducting morning exercises, certain hygienic rules should be observed: if possible, charging is recommended to be carried out all year round in the open air, which gives the greatest effect. When performing it in a room, it is necessary to ventilate the room well, do exercises with an open window or window. A set of exercises should be performed in light sportswear (underpants and a T-shirt).

The effectiveness of morning exercises depends on the selection of exercises, dosage of loads and the intensity of the exercises.

The duration of charging in women depends on the degree of physical fitness of the students. Morning exercises should include exercises (12-16) for all muscle groups, flexibility and mobility exercises, and breathing exercises. It is not recommended to perform exercises of a static nature, with significant weights, for endurance. The volume of the load and its intensity should be limited and be much less than in daytime workouts. Exercise, like all exercise, should not cause fatigue.

When performing morning exercises, it is recommended to adhere to a certain sequence of exercises: slow running, walking (2-3 minutes), sipping exercises with deep breathing, flexibility and mobility exercises for the arms, neck, trunk and legs, strength exercises without weights or with small weights for the arms, trunk and legs (bending and extending the arms in a lying position, exercises with light dumbbells - for women 1.5-2 kg, with expanders and rubber shock absorbers, etc.), various tilts and straightening in position standing, sitting, lying, squats on one and two legs, etc .; light jumps or jumps (for example, with a jump rope) - 20-36 seconds, slow running and walking (2-3 minutes), relaxation exercises with deep breathing.

When compiling morning exercises and their implementation, it is recommended to increase the load on the body gradually, with the highest load in the middle and in the second half of the complex. By the end of the exercise complex, the load is reduced, and the body is brought into a relatively calm state.

During the execution of a set of exercises of morning exercises, great importance is attached to the correct execution of breathing. During exercise, it is recommended to combine inhalation and exhalation with movements.

Inhalation is recommended to be combined with spreading the arms to the sides or lifting them up, with sipping, with straightening the body after bending, turning and squats.

The exhalation is performed when the arms are lowered down, during bending, twisting the body, during squats, alternately raising the legs forward with sweeping movements, etc.

You should only breathe through the nose or at the same time through the nose and mouth.

Jogging is one of the best and most affordable forms of physical education. Due to the naturalness and simplicity of movements, the ability to conduct training in almost any conditions and in the process of training to achieve a significant expansion of functional capabilities, running in recent years has become a massive hobby in many countries of the world. To increase the effectiveness of classes, it is necessary to master a rational technique, to learn how to dose the duration and speed of running correctly.

Errors in the technique of running (disturbances in posture, incorrect setting of the back, etc.) can cause painful sensations of individual muscle groups, tendons, joints of the legs, back. To avoid these phenomena, it is necessary to correctly perform running movements, as well as the presence of athletic shoes with elastic soles. When running, the body is held straight or has a slight forward bend, the shoulders are lowered and relaxed, the hands move forward and backward without tension, the foot is placed on the ground with a soft, raking motion on the outer arch of the foot. If this causes difficulties, it is possible to set up the foot from the heel, followed by rolling to the toe. The foot should touch the ground 20-25 cm in front of the projection of the center of gravity. Avoid bumping or striking your legs. The running step should be light, springy, with minimal vertical and lateral vibrations. The duration and speed of running is determined depending on the level of training of those involved and the tasks set: improving functional training or achieving certain results. Experience shows that by training 3-4 times a week, even with a minimum amount of stress, you can achieve a significant improvement in the functional state of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

Health jogging is preferably carried out in the park, in the park, forest, stadium, promenade or a quiet street. It is not recommended to run on roads and city streets with heavy traffic, where the air contains a large amount of harmful exhaust gases.

Getting to classes, to control the distance, the entire route needs to be divided into segments of 50-100 m. To do this simply using steps. At first, it is convenient for beginners to conduct classes on the treadmill of the stadium, where it is easy to control the distance.

Exercise causes an increase in heart rate. There is a direct correlation between the intensity of physical activity and the value of the pulse - the more intense the load, the more often the pulse. Therefore, to control the intensity of physical activity, you should learn how to independently determine the pulse.

It is best to determine the pulse in the region of the carotid artery. The pulse is measured immediately after running, walking or gymnastic exercises (it is advisable to do this no later than after 2-3 seconds.)

The heart rate for 10 seconds is multiplied by 6. For example, if immediately after the run the pulse for 10 seconds was 22, then the heart rate is 132 per minute.

From the first lessons in jogging, one has to consistently and patiently learn correctly, breathe. Everyone must master the technique of proper breathing.

At rest, and especially during running with improper breathing, blood circulation is difficult, because the "breathing pump" is not fully included in the work, the level of blood oxygen saturation decreases, and metabolism is impaired.

To breathe correctly - this means breathing freely, deeply, including all respiratory muscles in the work, inhale and exhale through the nose.

Of particular importance to humans is breathing through the nose. A person should always try to breathe through his nose.

Using nasal breathing, you can control the amount of physical activity. If during a health run it is impossible to breathe through the nose and you have to breathe through the mouth, then the load on the body is above the maximum permissible level. In this case, it is necessary to reduce the running speed. If, after reducing the speed of running, breathing through the nose is still difficult, then you should switch to walking.

In some people, breathing through the nose causes considerable difficulty, especially during exercise. In this case, while running, you can breathe through the nose and half-open mouth at the same time.

Exercise is only an element of wellness activities.

Everyone involved in jogging needs to know and follow the rules of personal hygiene. Compliance with the rules of personal hygiene helps to increase the effectiveness of classes. Personal hygiene includes - hygiene of clothes and shoes, a rational regime of the day, caring for the oral cavity and body, giving up bad habits.

Clothing for jogging should be comfortable, light, moderately warm, and not restrict movements. In addition, it should be breathable, hygroscopic, elastic and have a small reservoir of bone. Cotton or woolen cloth suits these requirements best. Synthetic sportswear is extremely harmful, as it creates a static electric field on the surface of the body, thereby worsening the hygiene conditions of classes.

Sports shoes should be light, durable, comfortable, elastic, fit the size of the foot and protect the foot well from damage. You can’t use tight shoes, as blood circulation is disturbed, which contributes to increased sweating and cooling of the legs, deformation of the foot occurs, and scuffs and corns are formed. If necessary, felt, fur, felt or foam insoles are put into shoes.

You can do jogging in the morning on an empty stomach or in the evening.

If classes are held in the morning, then before they start, you need to wash and brush your teeth. Evening classes should be held no earlier than 1.5-2 hours after eating and no later than 1-2 hours before bedtime.

It is possible to conduct classes in the fresh air at an air temperature of at least -20 ° C. At a lower temperature, it is advisable to conduct a lesson in the room, replacing running with gymnastic exercises and running in place.

After each lesson in 10-15 minutes. you need to take a shower, which calms the nervous system, cleanses the skin, improves blood circulation.

Daily use of a hot shower with soap is not recommended, as this leads to degreasing, increased flaking, dry skin

It is not recommended to take a cold shower after class. A cold shower without first hardening the body can cause colds.

From the very beginning of jogging, you need to learn to know yourself, to analyze the reasons for your vigor or lethargy, poor or good health - that is, to conduct self-control.

Self-monitoring indicators should preferably be entered in a diary that needs to be kept daily, including rest days. Self-control techniques should be simple and affordable. It should include: sleep, appetite, desire to run, violation of the regime, pulse, body weight. All these aspects should be taken into account during independent studies, since this will help to track the effectiveness or inefficiency of your classes.

Running is not allowed for those who suffer from diseases such as heart failure, angina pectoris, hypertension, heart defects, bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, etc. In any case, you should consult a specialist doctor.

There are many different jogging programs, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, before starting independent studies, you should study the programs offered below and choose one of them depending on gender, age, profession, health status, individual characteristics, etc.

Rhythmic gymnastics has a versatile effect on the body: it increases the capabilities of the cardiovascular system, develops flexibility, strength and coordination of movements, improves body shape and posture. Rhythmic gymnastics complexes can be performed at home with modern tempo dance music, preferably in front of a mirror. Clothing for girls - a swimsuit or shorts and a T-shirt, for boys - underpants and a T-shirt.

The body of a woman has anatomical and physiological features that must be considered when conducting training sessions.

Unlike the male body, the female body is characterized by a less solid bone structure, a lesser overall development of the muscles of the body, a wider pelvic girdle and more powerful pelvic floor muscles. For women's health, the development of the abdominal muscles, back and pelvic floor is of great importance. The normal position of the internal organs depends on their development.

In our country, girls do not engage in sports such as weightlifting, boxing, wrestling, etc. In a number of sports (athletics, swimming, speed skating, skiing, etc.), the length of the distance is limited for girls, and in throwing it decreases weight of shells (core, disk, spear). Training sessions with them differ from classes with men with a lower load, a more gradual increase in its volume and intensity.

Planning for independent physical exercises is aimed at achieving a common goal that students of all medical groups face - maintaining good health, maintaining a high level of physical and mental performance.

A positive result in physical education classes can be achieved only with many years of continuous training, based on taking into account the patterns of development of the body and the characteristics of the type of occupation (sport). When planning and conducting multi-year classes, a one-year training cycle is taken as the basis.

Management of independent training sessions consists in determining the state of health, the level of physical, sports readiness of those involved in each segment of the training time and, in accordance with the results of this definition, in adjusting the various aspects of training in order to achieve their greatest effectiveness.

To manage the process of independent training, it is necessary to carry out a number of activities to strengthen the purpose of classes. The goal may be: improving health, hardening the body and improving overall well-being, increasing the level of physical fitness, etc.

The rules of organization and hygiene of independent physical education for women include, first of all, a healthy lifestyle, a rational regime of the day, personal hygiene, measures to prevent sports injuries and hardening, in addition, it is necessary to maintain good sanitary condition of training places, sportswear and shoes, and also know the basic nature of the impact of the exercises used on the human body. It is also recommended to be able to use some restorative means, such as a steam bath and massage or self-massage.

The causes of diseases and injuries associated with physical exercises are violations of their hygiene provision, irrational methods and organization of classes, inadequate material and technical support, and poor health of students. Prevention of negative phenomena requires the fulfillment of a number of conditions. For example, it is desirable to engage in physical exercises at the same time of the day, not earlier than 1.5-2 hours after eating (but not on an empty stomach), in the appropriate sports form. It is necessary to observe gradualness in learning new complex exercises and in increasing their number. Shoes, clothing, and sports equipment should be appropriate to the abilities and age of those involved, as well as weather conditions. Unacceptable classes during the illness, in a state of significant fatigue or malaise, especially girls and women. It is very important to observe the rules of personal hygiene, especially cleanliness of the body.

It is recommended that physical exercises always be carried out in the open air, to fully use the hardening factors - the sun, fresh air.


For thousands of years, mankind has been looking for a wonderful elixir of life, sending fairy-tale heroes on long journeys to distant lands. But it turned out to be much closer - it is physical culture that gives people health, joy, a feeling of fullness of life. A modern specialist should be a seasoned, physically cultured person. Building yourself, your health on a tight schedule is difficult. But if this succeeds, then everything else succeeds.

Physical education and sports today are held not only in the new socio-economic conditions, but also in a changing environment, increased stress, complicated competition programs, the emergence of new technologies in equipment and equipment. All this complex of factors affects the woman’s body and needs to be studied!

I can not say about the sport of the highest achievements and the increasingly active involvement of women in it. All over the world, the number of professional female athletes is growing, as well as the number of competitive disciplines in which they participate. Especially in those sports that were previously considered as purely male. You can’t help with prohibitions here. In the 50s, women's hockey was banned, and now it is in the program of the Olympic Games. World championships in women's bar, boxing, martial arts are held.

By: Dr. Joan Berman

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